refer to as Ibrahim, father of Isaac and Ishmael. Deep ecumenism recognizes that as human beings, souls in evolution, we are all part of a shared planet, a living organism. Australia: Project Abraham, 2006), pp. Regenstein, M.M. After the Hekhsher Tzedek Commission documents were released, both clergy and laity, the The climate has been ripe for a new earth-based, value-based ethic of kashrut. “And Jacob cooked pottage; and Esau came from 28 My thanks to Chaya Gusfield who helped me see the link of Mathew Fox’s “Deep Ecumenism” and issues of Diverse communities in Virginia work to further common interests. Over the past three years all denominations - but especially the Conservative and Reform movements, which comprise over 50% of the affiliated Jewish community - have begun thinking about kashrut in a broader sense, encompassing both ethical and halakhic standards in determining what constitutes kosher. 39 Bill Brownstein, “Partners in Peace – And Food” Common Ground News Service, 15 July 2005. From the perspective of deep ecumenism, we want to first explore the shared field of sacred food traditions found in Judaism and Islam. As a adjective kosher is (of food) prepared in … This includes human behavior, speech communication, clothing, conduct, manner and dietary laws. 60. fulfill (all) obligations. As the fastest growing of the world religions, across the globe and in the United States, it is likely that, over time, there will be more Muslims in America than Jews.3 Perhaps, we are moving towards the day when it will be more accurate to speak of Jews as being part of a tripartite American civil faith, with the idea ofa ‘Judeo-Christian tradition’ replaced by values inherent in the ‘Abrahamic traditions’.4. 72, No. [ED. Kosher, halal and traditional meat all come from the same types of farms, with the same pesticides and waste, and the same harmful effects on the planet. 9 In the past decade as environmental concerns have entered mainstream American life, a “green synagogue” movement10; back to the earth Judaism; Jewish organic farming; Jewish vegetarianism11; organizations like Hazon, which describes its mission as “creating healthier and more sustainable Jewish community – as a step towards a healthier and more sustainable world for all”12; and blogs such as “The Jew and the Carrot”13 have all become part of the American Jewish landscape. accepted all Jewish food (except, of course, foods containing alcohol) as permissible for Muslim - Kashrut requires both cloven hooves & chewing cud. As part of a long-standing strategy to guard against assimilation, non-Jewish wine, oil, bread, Foods that is not permissible is called haram meaning unlawful or prohibited.The word” Kosher”, meaning proper or fit, originates from the Hebrew word “Kashrut”. 21 http://magentzedek.org/pdfs/Policy%20Statement%20and%20Guidelines.pdf. buried their father together, but shared Jacob’s lentil stew, and probably bread and Most likely it will need to be a product certification that does not include meat. 28 My thanks to Chaya Gusfield who helped me see the link of Mathew Fox’s “Deep Ecumenism” and issues of kashrut and halal. 34-48. However, there are other options, such as ready-to-eat subscription services and restaurants that deliver kosher or halal meals to the customers’ homes. Most of the time it is seen that Muslims and Jews tend to believe that Kosher is similar to halal and vice versa. JEWISH-MUSLIM DIALOG IN POST 9/11 AMERICA  Salient differences between kosher and halal are: Islam restricts all intoxicating alcohols, liquors, wines and drugs. and Ishmael, particularly in this century, have not been all that fraternal. Finally, realizing this continues to be a work in progress, to end, I offer a mythic, Midrashi image to inspire the sharing of food between Jews and Muslims. Rabbinic Directorship of Rabbi Geela Rayzel Raphael – www.interfaithways.com. food alone.”. According to another article in a local Montreal news service, dated July 15, 2005, Musayid Amla and Sasi Haba co-own and co-operate the Jerusalem Steak House, a Middle Eastern restaurant in Mile-End, a unique multi-ethnic neighborhood of Montreal.39, In order to maintain a proper partnership, they make a point of maintaining reciprocity. With regard to halal foods, even though most of the 6-8 million Muslims in America observe 11 Roberta Kalechofsky, “Judaism and Vegetarianism” The Reconstructionist (March-April 1987), pp. FROM THE TEXTS TO THE TABLE: JEWS AND MUSLIMS SHARING FOOD AND FOOD CONCERNS. Muslim who went into business together running a restaurant serving halal and kosher food. 3 Nancy Fuchs-Kreimer, “Teaching Islam to Rabbinical Students” The Reconstructionist Vol. And Esau said to Jacob, Feed me, I beg you, with that same red pottage; for I am famished. The stag suffering painfully from a bullet wound, the mink dying of its injuries in a trap or the fox torn to pieces by a pack of hounds all meet a far more cruel death than does the animal slaughtered according to the rites of kashrut and halal. Although our survery is by no means exhaustive, these texts demonstrate a commonality of tradition in Torah and Qur’an regarding permissible and prohibited foods. Next I spell out the basis of a value of “deep ecumenism” as an antidote to the tribal particularism that has, at times, characterized Jewish life. eat blood. In addition to the Hekhsher Tzedek Al Pi Din document rationalizing issues of ethical kashrut in JOINT CERTIFICATION? What ever parts the hoof, and is cloven footed, and chews the cud, among the beasts, that shall you eat. Regenstein, “Kosher But it was what transpired after the release of PETA’s undercover video footage of Aaron Rubashkin’s Iowa kosher slaughterhouse practices that catapulted Reb Zalman’s eco-kashrut vision into the forefront of Jewish community life.14, In May 2006 an article in The Forward by Nathaniel Popper15 exposing abuses at Agriprocessors, Inc. meat-processing plant, brought into public view an awareness of unethical, illegal and questionably halakhic practices at the country’s largest kosher slaughterhouse. 55- In addition to the Hekhsher Tzedek Al Pi Din document rationalizing issues of ethical kashrut in traditional sources, the Commission also created Policy Statement and Working Guidelines21 for implementing a process of evaluating kashrut based upon ethical standards, giving consideration to all those areas of inquiry mentioned above. by Simcha Raphael, Ph.D. “For we know that our patchwork heritage is a strength, not a weakness. With a profound sense of irony, the official opening took place September 13, 2001, two days after the Sept. 11 terror attacks on the. (Deut. WILDER DINING HALL, MOUNT HOLYOKE COLLEGE, 2001. In non-Arabic-speaking countries, the term is most commonly used in the narrower context of just Muslim dietary laws, especially where meat and poultry are concerned, though it can be used for the more general meaning, as well. Kashrut prohibits all forms of shellfish; some but not all Muslims will eat shellfish. While particularities and uniqueness is not ignored or under-valued, deep ecumenism seeks to highlight the spirituality that human beings of different religions and cultures can share; in Reb Zalman’s language, the shared God-field. In the next chapter of the Torah, we come across a passage describing the culinary activities of Abraham’s grandsons. document is found on a website www.ConvertsToIslam.org. (Original article(s) published in If Musayid Amla and Sasi Haba can co-create a kosher-halal restaurant, with some modifications, this experiment can be replicated elsewhere. 14:11-18), … someone in ihram [sacred state a Muslim must enter to perform major or minor pilgrimmage] should not kill any predatory birds.. (Sayings of Prophet: Malik's Muwatta, Book 20), And whoever there is of the house of Israel, or of the strangers who sojourn among you, who eats any kind of blood; I will set my face against that soul who eats blood, and will cut him off from among his people. and differences between Jewish and Muslim food practices, as we shall do below, we can begin to see where and how we might be able to share food with Muslims. others. Kashrut law prohibits eating of any types of insects. It is obviously happening. ecumenism” not withstanding, it turns out, there are significant and perhaps unbridgeable I don’t know if this will ever happen, and yet the hope that perhaps Jews and Muslims can make peace in the Holy Land, and throughout the world has motivated me totake on this research topic. But is this necessary or even relevant today, especially in America where, given the inter-marriage rate of over 50%, the emerging Jewish community is already multi-ethnic, and diversely religious?”, “Deep ecumenism is the opposite of tribal xenophobia and religious fundamentalism. Personal email correspondence, May 6, 2009. animals that chew the cud and have split hooves whereas; Halal does not give a clear definition of restrictive animals. and halal in the biotechnology era” Applied Biotechnology, Food and Science Policy, I, 2 (2003) 95-107. In exactly the same terms used to denounce kosher slaughter. does not require a prayer for each individual animal slaughtered. But it can begin small scale, even at a local level. Observance of dietary laws has a primary place in the traditional practices of both Jews and JACOB’S STEW – A VISION OF SHARING OF FOOD BETWEEN MUSLIMS AND JEWS, The Book of Genesis speaks of the death of the Patriarch Abraham, whom Muslims It is the promulgation of new attitudes towards an ethical kashrut that motivates my exploration of halal and kashrut. With a profound sense of irony, the official opening took place September 13, 2001, two days after the Sept. 11 terror attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon. Hinei ma tov, u mah nayim, shevet achim gam yachad. Widest Halal and Haram Articles Listing in USA and Worldwide. Kashrut clearly defines the animals that are permitted i.e. consumption. Regenstein, “Kosher and halal in the biotechnology era” p. 97. The meat is slaughtered especially for them so that it will be defined both HALAL AND KASHRUT – DUAL CERTIFICATION? This is not prohibited according to halal. Around the same time, a Jewish environmental movement, while not specifically focused on Policy in American Reform Judaism” American Jewish Archives Journal 57,1-2 (2005) 29-52. However, in addition to concerns with quality of food, labor relations, animal rights, environmental impact and integrity in business, there are other pressing questions of our age, other ethical issues that have not been addressed by the Hekhsher Tzedek Commission. 25 There is pioneering work being done in the contemporary Jewish community, not to encourage intermarriage, Eat of the good things wherewith we have provided you, and render thanks to Allah if it is He whom ye worship” (Qur’an 2:172). and culture, drawn from every end of this Earth.” 1 A shouting match ensued, and Haba, who was standing nearby decided to intervene. Food deemed unclean for consumption is known as treifah, which literally means torn or mortally wounded. This 17 According to Rabbi Morris Allen, he first spoke publically about Hekhsher Tzedek on Yom Kippur 2006 when he was beginning to get the Agriproccesors company to begin to change their orientation. Taking study of traditional texts very seriously, the Commission then evaluated a wide pastiche of Biblical, Rabbinic and medieval sources related to these various issues, aspiring to highlight values of righteousness, social responsibility and integrity in business practices as a basis for ethical kashrut. Do not eat any detestable thing. But it was what transpired after the release of PETA’s undercover video footage of Aaron Kosher ‘Jungle’ Breeds Fear, Injury, Short Pay” The Jewish Forward (May 26, 2006). reciprocity. 43 Michael J. Friedman, “Muslim, Jewish Communities Secure Halal-Kosher Labeling Law” America.gov, (18 All of these relate to the animal kingdom, and dhabiah is the term used to describe the prescribed method of ritual slaughter. A few weeks ago, at one of our meetings, we debated quite extensively the kind of food to be served to the Jews and Muslims,  Christians and others. Kashrut allows alcohol, as long as it has no non-kosher ingredients. According to Qu’ran 5:5: “The food of those who have been brought the Scripture is lawful for you.” In other words, it’s okay for Muslims to eat food of other Peoples of the Book - Christians and Jews. KASHRUT AND HALAL: SIMILARITIES AS FOUND IN THE SACRED TEXTS. Chaudry, and C.E. Now, in the spirit of deep ecumenism I will look a number of instances in which Jews and Kosher and halal are mainly associated with the food of Muslims and Jewish people. I maintain that this is an entirely open area for future exploration and business negotiations with the Muslim community. 11:7) Regenstein, M.M. decades, I see an example of how a prophetic idea based on values of right relationship to earth and other human beings, can grow into fruition and manifestation. The final days and the slaughter of the animals are more humane, so if that's a concern, kosher and halal meats are a better choice for your conscience. But while they do have some similarities, they’re very different diets.. Here’s the 411 on all things kosher and halal. This is a well-researched article on Kashrut and Halal foods, the guidelines that guide Jews and Muslims on their dietary practices. 25 There is pioneering work being done in the contemporary Jewish community, not to encourage intermarriage, but rather to welcome inter-married couples and families into Jewish community and synagogue life. any living thing which is in the waters, they shall be an abomination to you; September 2006). See http://www.projectabraham.org.au/files/projectabrahambookletapril2007.pdf wages and benefits; the company’s environmental impact; corporate transparency, al. First, let us imagine traveling in time to Spain in the 9th-11th centuries, to the era referred to as Esau bread and pottage of lentils; and he did eat and drink, and rose up, and went 2 http://www.religioustolerance.org/isl_numb.htm. 9 See Ellen Bernstein and Dan Fink, Let the Earth Teach You Torah (Philadelphia: Shomrei Adamah, 1992). In non-Arabic-speaking countries, [ED. According to Rene Kroll, Union Manager at Mount Holyoke College, there continue to be and product development.23. What ever parts the hoof, and is cloven footed, and chews the cud, together the essential values underlying both eco-kashrut and deep ecumenism, I of criteria having to do with such matters as employee health, safety and training; Regenstein, “The Kosher and Halal Food Laws” Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, Vol. The Islamic dietary laws (Halal) and the Jewish dietary laws (Kashrut; in English, kosher) contain both points of similarity and discord. Three months later Amla, the Palestinian Muslim called Sasi Haba, whose family owned a restaurant in Mahaneh Yehuda market in Jerusalem, and arranged for the two of them to meet, and eventually suggested to Haba that he join him in moving to Montreal, Canada and opening up a restaurant. recognize there are all kinds of religious, political and organizational hurdles to cross to get to this place. Halal does not have any such restrictions. With regard to halal foods, even though most of the 6-8 million Muslims in America observe halal, there has not been much of a concerted effort within the food industry to market to this consumer group. It is very long, but those who have an interest and those who are Imams, Rabbis, Pundits, Gyanis, Shamans or clergy in any tradition, must read and disseminate to others. Eat of that which is Lawful and Wholesome in the earth…” (Qur’an 2:168); “Eat of the good things. Kosher means that a food is “fit” or permitted. 7 Among the conferences: Food, The Earth and Jewish Ethics Conference at Bethesda-Chevy Chase High School Sponsored by Am Kolel in co-operation with Shomrei Adamah DC, Jewish Vegetarians of North America, the Shalom Center and the Washington Jewish Week. night prowler, and the gier-eagle, and the fish owl, And the stork, and the heron Pork 3. 45 Sue Fishkoff, “”Dietary Changes Afoot, But Are They Kosher?” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, (October 29, 2008). The possibility exists for continued collaboration in this area. PHI 352 In the first part of this paper, I discuss development of eco-kashrut and its evolution into the Once again, it may not be the Torah (I hope) but certainly not the Quran that goes against integration, it is the people mired in tribalism and nativism who have added their own clauses. Halal vs. Kosher Are halal and kosher the same thing? There are halal and ethnic grocers found in major metropolitan areas, but halal certification and marketing is not as developed as the kashrut marketing industry. I am not advocating elimination of kashrut practices, as did the early Reformers.26 However, I am clear that Jewish tribal particularism, based upon restrictive food practices is certainly not what is needed to enhance inter-cultural cooperation in our times. While this does not explain all the reasons for kashrut practices, it does highlight at least one of A Celebration of Jewish Being and Thinking (New York: Warner Books, 1993) pp. According to Midrash Tanhuma (Buber, Toldot 3), following the death of Abraham Jacob was preparing food for mourners. 5 Arthur Waskow, Down-to-Earth Judaism (New York: William and Morrow, 1995), p. 117. Thus we find: “O, Mankind! In the Muslim tradition, these fish are halal because they possess the appropriate characteristic of having true fish scales.. And at this critical juncture in human history we need each other for the healing of our planet. Jacob was preparing food for mourners. But is this necessary or even relevant today, especially in America where, given the inter-marriage rate of over 50%,25 the emerging Jewish community is already multi-ethnic, and diversely religious? Herbivorous animals that have been slayed or hunted for fun 6. (Qur’an 5:96), You shall not eat of any thing that dies of itself; you shall give it to the stranger that is in your gates, that he may eat it; or you may sell it to a foreigner; for you are a holy people to the Lord your God. With the growth and integration of the Muslim population in American society, a trend may well be in the making. PROHIBITION - BIRDS OF PREY OR SCAVENGERS: Of all clean birds you shall eat. Friedenreich, Foreign Food, Doctoral Dissertation, Columbia University, 2006. “Halal” is an Arabic word meaning lawful or permissible. 29 Giora Shimoni, “What is Treif?” http://kosherfood.about.com/od/kosherbasics/f/treif.htm. Now, eco-kashrut is about to enter the food chain, with a symbol of certification that will not replace traditional hekhsher certification, but augment it. Personal I think vegetarian and fish restaurants will be the way to go. In very broad terms, laws of kashrut focus on clean and unclean animals, fish and fowl (Deut. 20 Avram Israel Reisner, Hekhsher Tzedek – Al Pi Din (New York: Hekhsher Tzedek Commission of the Rabbinical Assembly and the United Synagogue Council of Conservative Judaism, 2008) p. 2. ... Kashrut is the body of Jewish law dealing with what foods we can and cannot eat and how those foods must be prepared and eaten. 14:21). However, Dr. Quadri reported that he is also working with American companies for marketing of halal products in the United States, and Canada. One further aspect of halal laws focuses on prohibition of alcohol and other intoxicants. Given the legacy of persecution, it made sense that dietary laws were used to limit social interaction between Jews and non-Jews. Much of the work of this halal certification agency is focused on export to Muslim countries in Asia notably Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore. Chaya Gusfield, “Sacred Eating in Islam and Judaism: A Place to Come Together”, Israel, saying, These are the beasts which you shall eat among all the beasts that are One River, Many Wells: Wisdom Springing from Global Faiths (Los Angles: Jeremy 43 Michael J. Friedman, “Muslim, Jewish Communities Secure Halal-Kosher Labeling Law” America.gov, (18 September 2006). 9 See Ellen Bernstein and Dan Fink, Let the Earth Teach You Torah (Philadelphia: Shomrei Adamah, 1992). While not the case universally, it tends to be so among liberal Muslims today. And all that have not fins and scales in the seas, and in the rivers, of all that move in the waters, and of any living thing which is in the waters, they shall be an abomination to you (Lev. Kosher and Halal describe what is “fit and proper” to eat for two groups of people, Jews and Muslims. Undeniably, the eco-kashrut idea once envisioned by Reb Zalman has now become viably I spoke with Dr. Farhat Quadri, Director of Community Service of IFINCA – Islamic Food and 36 Section which follows is based on: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islamic_and_Jewish_dietary_laws_compared, http://meat.tamu.edu/kosher.html, and J.M. Though kosher and halal are food laws, it also has great significance in other rituals that they both follow in … “While this does not explain all the reasons for kashrut practices, it does highlight at least one of the functions kashrut practices served through the ages. 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